The human face is a system that carries a complete set of information, as well as a unique means of communication, which will always be the source of our riddle. Due to the evolution, which lasted more than one million years, the face improved and became the hallmark of a person, but the most important thing is that the face expresses our emotions. Our life is full of emotions that are reflected in the mimic activity of the muscles.

At the anatomical courses conducted by Medical Esthetic under the guidance of Natalia Markova, we help aesthetic doctors unravel the secrets of the face. Of great interest on the part of aesthetic medicine specialists are always in the orbital and frontal areas. When performing aesthetic procedures, it is crucial to know not only the anatomy of the muscles and to be able to work with them, but also to foresee how the muscles of the face will contract in the future and how they will reflect the emotional state of the patient. The face is a “canvas”, on which the aesthtic doctor must create competently, considering the patient’s sensual personality, his emotions, and in some cases – the patient’s professional activity.

First of all, you need to pay attention to the most famed muscle: the circular muscle of the eye – m. orbicularis oculi, as well as the frontal area in terms of anatomy.
M. orbicularis oculi is a sphincter muscle with many features:

  • The first feature is that it has three parts: orbital, lacrimal, and palpebral; the palpebral part, in turn, is divided into two more parts: upper and lower. When performing aesthetic procedures, especially with botulinum toxin, but also with the introduction of fillers and implantation of threads, it is essential to understand the precise localization and functional features of all parts of the orbicular muscle of the eye.
  • The second feature is that there is no superficial fat layer above the circular muscle of the eye, which is also crucial when using solutions of botulinum neuroprotein (in particular, mesobotox) and enzyme solutions in the area of lower eyelids.
  • And the third feature is the attachment of the orbicular muscle of the eye to the bone and its interlacing with other adjacent muscles, creating a certain layering, which again is of great importance when injecting botulinum neuroprotein because deeper or, conversely, too superficial injections can lead to botulinum toxin getting into other muscles and provoke adverse events.


As for the frontal region, we all know that the target of botulinum therapy, first of all, are such facial muscles: the frontal muscle (part of the fronto-occipital) – the antagonist of the circular muscle of the eye, the corrugator supercilii muscles, the procerus muscle and part of the circular muscle of the eye. The frontal muscles are responsible not only for our facial expressions but also for the formation, under the influence of age and behavioral factors, wrinkles and creases (horizontal and vertical wrinkles of the frontal region).

Most requests from patients are received for the correction of vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows. The area between the eyebrows has a special name “glabella”. This is the area of work of several muscles: the procerus muscle, the corrugator supercilii muscle, and the frontalis muscle. Each muscle has its own dynamics, attachment sites, size (volume), length, and direction of the fibers.

All of the above features are of great importance for effective and safe botulinum therapy, they should be taken into account when choosing the concentration of the drug, dosages, directions, and injection techniques. Attending anatomical courses will help doctors to better understand the anatomical and functional features of various facial structures and effectively apply the gained knowledge to achieve excellent aesthetic results of the procedures while maintaining the natural facial expression of patients.

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